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为他人采摘核桃摔伤的法律关系认定及责任划分
信息来源:www.mjfy.gov.cn 麦积法院网 元龙法庭 陈昊    发布日期:2017-12-15 9:07:04    阅读次数:5877

天水市麦积区人民法院元龙法庭近期审结一起提供劳务者受害责任纠纷案。双方当事人本是关系要好的邻居,却在原告为被告采摘核桃摔伤后,因赔偿问题闹上了法庭。

【案情简介】

2016年93日麦积区某村村民黄某邀请同村的谢某为其采摘核桃。谢某口头许诺后,同日下午,谢某坐在距离地面高3米,直径约15厘米粗细的底层核桃树枝上,用长约3米的木杆打落核桃时,因核桃树枝断裂,谢某掉落地面受伤。谢某受伤后,先后在诊所及医院治疗后,好转出院。伤情诊断为:肋骨骨折(左侧多发)外伤性气胸双肺挫伤胸骨骨折胸部皮肤擦伤。同年12月13日,谢某在甘肃司法鉴定所对其伤情、误工期限、护理天数、营养期限进行了司法鉴定。鉴定意见为:谢某左侧多发性骨折,评定为x(十)伤残。谢某的误工期限评定为90日,护理期限评定为60日,营养期限评定为60日。

谢某治疗出院的当天晚上,黄某邀请谢某两位哥哥谢某甲谢某乙及同村的7名中间人在黄某家中就受伤赔偿一事达成调解协议。协议约定:1.谢某在医院的治疗费用由黄某承担;2.黄某再支付谢某疗养费2000元,该款当时已支付。该协议书由谢某事先准备,中间人刘某抄写,双方阅读后,经谢某和黄某双方、谢某的两位哥哥,在场的七名中间人签字并摁指印。该次协商中,双方口头补充约定,新农合报销手续由黄某办理,报销获得的费用归谢某。因黄某未及时给付谢某报销获得的费用,谢某以协议的甲乙双方书写颠倒为由,将黄某持有的协议书索回。

后谢某以自己无偿为黄某帮工采摘核桃受伤,黄某仅为其支付了住院期间的医药费,拒绝支付其他费用为由将黄某夫妇诉至法院,要求其支付医疗费、误工费、护理费、住院伙食补助费、营养费、交通费、残疾赔偿金、精神抚慰金、被扶养人生活费、鉴定费各项损失的80﹪,即31748.8元。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

而黄某夫妇则称:2014年9月,被告曾叫原告给自己家采摘核桃,当时未协商报酬,事后,被告按高于市场行情,以每天200元的标准,给原告支付1.5天的工资300元。2016年9月3日上午,被告又以同样的方式叫原告给自己采摘核桃。当天下午,原告在打核桃的过程中掉下来摔伤,被告将原告送到医院治疗,原告住院期间的医疗费、交通费、伙食费均由被告承担被告在原告住院期间进行了护理。因原告受伤,被告忙于给原告治疗,被告未及时支付原告报酬和报销款。

【法院裁判】

天水市麦积区人民法院依照《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》三十五条,《最高人民法院关于审理人身损害赔偿案件适用法律若干问题的解释》第十四条第一款、第十七条、第十九条至第二十五条、第二十六条第一款、第二十八条,《最高人民法院关于确定民事侵权精神损害赔偿责任若干问题的解释》第十一条之规定,判决对2016年9月19日,谢某与被告黄某达成的调解协议(含口头补充约定)予以变更,变更为:由被告黄某夫妇共同赔偿原告谢某医疗费、误工费、护理费、交通费、住院伙食补助费、营养费、残疾赔偿金(含被抚养人生活费)、精神抚慰金、司法鉴定费等各项损失的70%,即31024.68元,扣除被告黄某已经支付的9022.99元,由被告黄某夫妇再支付谢某22001.69元于判决生效后10日履行完毕。

【法官评析】

麦积区人民法院王喜祯法官认为,该案当事人争议的焦点问题如下:

一、关于法律关系的问题

被告黄某认为,2014年9月,被告按照当地习惯,叫原告给其采摘核桃,事后支付原告1.5天的劳动报酬300元,2016年9月,被告以同样的方式叫原告采摘核桃,本打算采摘结束后支付原告劳动报酬,因原告出事,至今未支付,原告与被告系劳务关系。原告认为,原告与被告是无偿帮工关系。

法院认为,按照当地约定成俗的习惯以及被告付酬请原告采摘核桃的先例,本次被告请原告为其采摘核桃,工作完成后支付劳动报酬,因原告受伤,被告虽未支付劳动报酬,但原告与被告间形成的法律关系系个人之间的劳务关系,不属于无偿的帮工法律关系。

二、关于当事人承担责任的问题

《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》第三十五条规定,“个人之间形成劳务关系,提供劳务一方因劳务造成他人损害的,由接受劳务一方承担侵权责任。提供劳务一方因劳务自己受到损害的,根据双方各自的过错承担相应的责任。”本案中,两位被告作为接受劳务者,应当为提供劳务者提供采摘核桃的辅助工具,以保障其安全,被告未提供梯子等采摘核桃的安全辅助工具,被告存在过错,应当承担相应的民事赔偿责任。

原告家居农村,多年从事农业生产,对于核桃树枝性脆,容易断裂的特性应当熟悉。因树枝断裂造成人员伤亡的事件时有发生,原告应当引以为戒。原告为被告采摘核桃时,明知核桃树枝因踩压更容易断裂,不借助梯子等辅助工具,直接踩踏在树枝上进行采摘,致树枝断裂,造成原告身体损伤,原告也有过错。也应承担相应的责任。故认定原告因伤造成的经济损失44320.97元,由被告承担70%,即31024.68元,由原告自己承担30%即13296.29元。

三、关于原、被告双方达成的调解协议效力问题。

《最高人民法院关于贯彻执行中华人民共和国民法通则若干问题的意见(试行)的通知》第73条规定,对于重大误解或者显失公平的民事行为,当事人请求变更的,人民法院应当予以变更;当事人请求撤销的,人民法院可以酌情予以变更或者撤销。可变更或者可撤销的民事行为,自行为成立时起,超过一年当事人才请求变更或者撤销的,人民法院不予保护。案中,双方当事人在中间人的参与下,就原告摔伤造成的损失,签订的调解协议系还是原告的真实意思表示,不违反相关规定,该协议有效,本应主动履行。由于被告及时履行引发纠纷。原告请求增加赔偿数额,并将变更后的请求作为诉讼请求,起诉至本院,原告变更请求的期限未超过一年,原告的起诉符合法律规定。鉴于应当获得的赔偿额计算3万多元;但如按调解协议可获得的赔偿款计算为1万多元,尚不足一半;又鉴于该协议尚未履行完毕,原告依法行使变更权,法院酌情予以部分支持诉讼请求。

四、关于原告诉讼请求项目合法合理性问题

《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》第十六条规定,侵害他人造成人身损害的,应当赔偿医疗费、护理费、交通费等为治疗和康复支出的合理费用,以及因误工减少的收入。原告请求的医疗费、护理费、交通费、住院伙食补助费、营养费、残疾赔偿金等均在法律规定的范围内,应予以支持。以上各项数额均依据《最高人民法院关于审理人身损害赔偿案件适用法律若干问题的解释》、精神抚慰金按《最高人民法院关于确定民事侵权精神损害赔偿责任若干问题的解释》的规定,结合本案证据予以认定。

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